Human Sewage Identified as Likely Source of White Pox Disease of the Threatened Caribbean Elkhorn Coral
Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bournoni. Identification of PDR60 in sewage, diseased Acropora palmata and other reef invertebrates within a discrete time frame suggests a causal link between white pox and sewage contamination on reefs and supports the conclusion that humans are a likely source of this disease.
Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson, James W. Porter, Jeffrey W. Turner, Brian J. Thomas, Erin E. Looney, Trevor P. Luna, Meredith K. Meyers, J. Carrie Futch, and Erin K. Lipp. 2010. Human sewage identified as likely source of white pox disease of the threatened caribbean elkhorn coral, acropora palmata. Environmental Microbiology 12 (5): 1122-31.