Author ORCID Identifier


Document Type


Publication Date



Ultranationalist and religious fundamentalist movements frequently use hate to mobilize people. These groups possess a sophisticated understanding of the importance of appealing to the emotions. Leaders often employ xenophobic language intended to inspire fear and justify a defensive reaction. The movements also rely heavily upon symbols, myths, and public events to simplify and communicate the "truths" of their ideologies. The leaders convey messages with tremendous affective appeal. Yet, measures exist to counter and contain the politics of hate. The development of civil society, group rights, a free media, and integrated institutions can contribute to a durable solution in cases of ethnic or religious conflict. Finally, the option of humanitarian intervention exists when the politics of hate leads to extremist violence.

Publication Title

Journal of Hate Studies