Date of Award

Spring 2022

Thesis Type

Open Access

Degree Name

Master of Liberal Studies


Dr. Paul Reich

Second Advisor

Dr. Gail Sinclair


This thesis examines the individuals in Ernest Hemingway’s personal life that inspired the non-heteronormative characters in his writing. It asserts that those most responsible for this influence include Jim Gamble, Grace Hemingway, Ruth Arnold, Gertrude Stein, Sydney Franklin, Glenway Westcott, Hemingway’s wives, mainly Mary Welsh Hemingway, and Ernest Hemingway himself. The methodology included a thorough analysis of Hemingway’s biographies, personal letters, memoirs, short stories, novels, and Mary’s diary to identify and draw parallels between the named individuals and the fictional non-heteronormative characters inspired by them. The analyzed Hemingway works include: “A Simple Enquiry,” “The Mercenaries,” “Mother of a Queen,” “The Sea Change,” The Sun Also Rises, The Garden of Eden, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, Across the River and into the Trees, Islands in the Stream, Death in the Afternoon, A Moveable Feast, True at First Light, Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters 1970-1961, and Mary Welch Hemingway’s autobiography, How it Was.

Rights Holder

Christopher Bauman