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This study demonstrates the complexities of analyzing determinants of cultural differences between and within national cultures. Ralston, Yu, Wang, Terpstra, and He (1996) investigated geographic regional differences in values in China, finding significant differences among the regions. This study investigates geographic regional differences in preferred managerial leader behavior in four provinces. In 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire XII (LBDQ XII) was administered to people working in business organization in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province; Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province; Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province; and in the Macau Special Administrative Region, in the Peoples’ Republic of China. Significant differences were found among the samples for each of the twelve factors of the LBDQ XII, with the exception that the nearby regions of Guangzhou and Macau exhibited no differences. The results indicate that “cultural areas” exist in China, distinctly different from one another.


Published originally as "Regional Differences in Managerial Leader Behaviour Preferences in China." Cross Cultural Management 19, no. 3 (2012): 315-335.

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Cross Cultural Management